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Directions: Please choose the BEST answer for each multiple-choice item. If I find answers unclear, no credit will be given. If you offer more than one, I will take the first in the sequence.

Answers: You will type your answers, and submit them electronically like all other assignments. Identify yourself, the course and the content at the top of the page. Itemize each answer as follows:

1. Z
2. V
3. J
4. (and so on through 50…)

You do not need to write out the questions again; just provide the answers. Make sure the font is easily readable. If you do not identify yourself, the course and the content (for example, “Exam 2 Answers”), you will lose 5 points. I need this for record-keeping purposes.

Resources: You are permitted to use any course materials at your disposal. The textbook, presentations, notes you might have taken, completed study guides or the like. YOU ARE NOT PERMITTED TO USE EACH OTHER. I expect everyone to work independently, and request that you report any instances of collaboration. Please uphold the integrity of the exam, and the examination process.

This exam is due by Sunday, 3/30 at Midnight (before Monday).

Good luck!

1. The United States has a class system. Under this system, social ranking is based on:
a. Wealth
b. Income
c. Occupational prestige
d. Educational attainment
e. All of the above

2. The replacement of caste systems with class systems:
a. Brings and end to most social inequality
b. Replaces one kind of inequality with another
c. Means that individuals, not families, are unequal
d. Means that unequal categories of people become more clearly defined

3. According to William Julius Wilson, which social class is characterized as urban dwelling and marginalized from social and economic capital that prevent increased standard of living?
a. The working class
b. The lower class
c. The underclass

4. Which of the following groups is characterized as having an interwoven set of economic, political and socio-cultural interests that afford them tremendous advantage and influence?
a. The Upper Crust
b. The Power Elite
c. The Capitalists
d. The Social Royalty

5. Structural mobility is:
a. The degree to which one can change their social stratum of birth
b. The degree of change witnessed within social stratum
c. The degree to which families/individuals can change their social location from one generation to the next
d. The movement of entire categories of people across social strata
e. Up or downward changes in relation to one’s social stratum of birth

6. The inequalities built into the structure of society, hierarchically arranging social positions is known as:
a. Social inequality
b. Stratification
c. Social ranking
d. Socio-economic status

7. Lebron James has a tremendous amount of wealth and income, but a job that is relatively low in prestige. From a social class perspective, this situation is described as:
a. Celebrity
b. Status inconsistency
c. Role inequality

8. When members of society have different amounts of wealth, power and prestige, that society has:
a. Social inequality
b. Stratification
c. Social ranking
d. Socio-economic status

9. Intergenerational mobility is:
a. The degree to which one can change their social stratum of birth
b. The degree of change witnessed within social stratum
c. The degree to which families/individuals can change their social location from one generation to the next
d. The movement of entire categories of people across social strata
e. Up or downward changes in relation to one’s social stratum of birth

10. According to Marx, when members of a certain social class recognize their objective conditions, they have taken on:
a. The collective consciousness
b. The class consciousness
c. The false consciousness
d. The group consciousness

11. According to the functionalist approach, social class inequality exists because:
a. Greater rewards are needed to motivate people into particular social positions
b. It ensures all social positions are filled, even the less appealing ones
c. There are benefits to poverty, for example, a pool of cheap labor
d. A and B only
e. B and C only
f. A, B and C

12. According to Marx, capitalism exacerbates social inequalities:
a. By generating a ton of surplus, which is taken up by wealthy, capitalist owners
b. Because economic production ebbs and flows, resources are distributed unequally over time
c. As the government is too involved in economic production, disallowing the free market to work as it should
d. Because some jobs require more skill, training and ability than others, which determines wages and salaries

13. The reality of social mobility in the United States is that:
a. Most individuals experience upward mobility from one generation to the next
b. Most individuals wind up in the same social locations and positions as when they start
c. Most individuals wind up in higher social locations and positions within the course of their own lifetime
d. Most individuals experience alternating patterns of upward and downward mobility

14. Social expectations assigned on the basis of our biological sex are known as:
a. Sex roles
b. Gender roles
c. Sex status
d. Gender status

15. Which set of theorists would argue that women need to remain subordinate in order for other groups to maintain their privilege, power and wealth?
a. Functionalists
b. Conflict theorists
c. Symbolic interactionists
d. Feminists

16. The social arrangement in which men dominate over women is known as:
a. Patriarchy
b. Matriarchy
c. Sexism

17. The feminization of poverty refers to the fact that in the United States:
a. More and more women are falling into the ranks of the poor
b. Women have fewer and fewer income earning opportunities
c. A greater share of the poor are women and single mothers
d. Poverty reflects gender inequalities

18. The ideology that maintains women are inherently inferior to men is known as:
a. Patriarchy
b. Matriarchy
c. Sexism

19. The fact nearly 98% of all dental hygienists are women, but not even 15% of all police officers are women is evidence of:
a. Sex segregation
b. Male primacy
c. The glass ceiling
d. Gender essentialism

20. Daniela is a recently hired nurse. Having just graduated from nursing school, she feels fortunate to find the job. The hiring committee reportedly passed on several male candidates, feeling as a female, she would give the best care. One would explain Daniela’s hiring as a product of:
a. Sex segregation
b. Male primacy
c. The glass escalator
d. Gender essentialism

21. John was an elementary school teacher. Almost as soon as he started, he was strongly encouraged by colleagues and administrators to apply to become the school principal. Two years later, John was promoted to a top member of the school board, and ultimately became superintendent of the district. One would describe this fast-track as:
a. Sex segregation
b. Male primacy
c. The glass escalator
d. Gender essentialism

22. Gender is not just a matter of difference, but it is also a matter of:
a. Wealth and power
b. Privilege
c. Sexual orientation
d. A and B only
e. B and C only
f. All of the above (A, B and C)

23. Who would say that gender and gender inequality exist because gender roles compliment one another, and make social life more efficient in the process?
a. A functionalist
b. A conflict theorist
c. A symbolic interactionist

24. According to Hochschild, the second shift is:
a. Working afternoons and evenings rather than regular, daytime hours
b. When men care for children in the evenings while women go to work
c. When women take care of domestic chores after working paid jobs during the day
d. When both partners in a couple have to work to maintain their standard of living

25. Who would say that gender and gender inequality exist because, through socialization, we learn traditional gender roles and that gender differences are normalized?
a. A functionalist
b. A conflict theorist
c. A symbolic interactionist

26. According to Williams, how are men advantaged in the workplace?
a. They find the best paying positions in occupations that are largely staffed by women
b. They are sex segregated into jobs that tend to pay more, for example, doctors versus nurses
c. They are often in charge of hiring, helping to move men up the ranks
d. A and B only
e. B and C only
f. A, B and C

27. A group set apart on the basis of their physical or cultural differences and have less power in society is a:
a. Racial group
b. Ethnic group
c. Cultural group
d. Minority group

28. Assumed differences among a group perceived as “other” is known as:
a. Bias
b. Prejudice
c. Stereotyping
d. Discrimination
e. Institutional discrimination

29. Ethnocentrism is:
a. Creating a new ethnic group to gain power and advantage
b. Dismissing the importance of ethnicity in society
c. Using one’s own cultural-ethnic framework as the benchmark to measure another’s
d. Encouraging open-mindedness about different cultural and ethnic groups

30. Stereotypes are:
a. Any generalization about social life or social groups
b. Unreliable generalizations applied to everyone in some category or group
c. Only positive depictions of a minority
d. Only negative depictions of a minority

31. While prejudice is a matter of ___________, discrimination is a matter of ___________.
a. Biology; culture
b. Attitudes; action
c. Choice; social structure
d. Abnormality; what a society considers normal

32. Institutional discrimination refers is the concept that:
a. Some people hold rigid, prejudicial attitudes that condition social interaction
b. Bias was pronounced in this nation’s history and continues to shape group outcomes
c. Discrimination is built into the operation of social institutions and practices
d. Racial and ethnic inequality can be alleviated through education and awareness

33. Jose is a second-generation Hispanic immigrant, meaning he is the son of immigrant parents. Having been in the United States for most of his life, he has adopted many core, American values. However, residing in Los Angeles, he has been surrounded by a strong Hispanic ethnic community, promoting traditional social networks, language and foods. Jose’s pattern of interaction is one of:
a. Amalgamation
b. Assimilation
c. Acculturation
d. Pluralism

34. The use of race-neutral principles to perpetuate an unequal status quo is referred to as:
a. Racial inequality
b. Color-blind racism
c. Institutional discrimination
d. Racial prejudice

35. Jim Crow laws were an example of ________ segregation, whereas the fact that racial/ethnic groups tend to live, work and shop in different places is an example of ________ segregation.
a. De jure; De facto
b. De facto; De jure

36. The process by which wealthy people acquire property in low income communities, remake things in their own character, and push out racial/ethnic minorities is known as:
a. Apartheid
b. Hyper-segregation
c. White flight
d. Gentrification

37. Assimilation refers to the pattern by which:
a. People come to accept minority groups and their presence and numbers grow in society
b. Minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant categories or groups in society
c. Minority categories become more equal in social standing as they demand and obtain rights and opportunities
d. People regain a lost cultural heritage through a process of revitalizing culture and identity

38. The Principle of Cumulation suggests:
a. Interracial contact will reduce prejudice and stereotypes through cooperative circumstances and integration
b. Discrimination keeps minority groups in an inferior status, and that inferior status is cited as proof for differential treatment
c. Racial and ethnic groups exist because group members develop a collective consciousness and singular identity
d. Our individual biases lead to prejudice, and over time, lead to discrimination and disadvantage

39. Tom believes race and ethnic inequality is a product of competition among different groups vying for wealth and power. Moreover, the so-termed winners are able to maintain positions of dominance by directing attention away from themselves and towards in-fighting among minority groups. Tom is coming from which theoretical perspective?
a. Functionalism
b. Conflict theory
c. Symbolic interactionism

40. The process by which nations move from traditional forms of social organization to post-industrial ones is:
a. Globalization
b. Modernization
c. Development
d. Industrialization

41. The common denominator underlying all forms of modern slavery is:
a. Race
b. Poverty
c. Ethnicity
d. Gender

42. The situation where poor nations remain dependent on richer ones through the mechanisms of finance and debt is referred to as:
a. Globalization
b. Foreign aid
c. Multinationalism
d. Neocolonialism

43. The perspective that suggests the global system is stratified and produces advantages for some and disadvantages for others is:
a. Modernization theory
b. World systems theory
c. Dependency theory
d. Global capitalist theory

44. From the perspective of a stratified global system with rampant inequality, poor nations are best understood as:
a. Responsible for their own poverty
b. Made poor by rich nations
c. Suffering from traditional culture and practices
d. Floundering due to a gap in technology

45. The new ideology that emphasizes integration and interconnectedness of nations worldwide is known as:
a. Modernization
b. Internationalization
c. Globalization
d. Cosmopolitanism

46. Compared to inequality in within nations, global inequality is:
a. More equitable
b. More unequal
c. Less serious a problem
d. About the same

47. What tends to happen over the long term when Multinational Corporations invest in development ventures in poor nations?
a. Inequality decreases
b. Inequality increases
c. Inequality stays the same

48. The terms for loans that the International Monetary Fund impose on poor nations are called:
a. Cross Conditionalities
b. Structural Adjustment Programs
c. Lending Rates
d. Trade Regulations

49. Over the course of the last century, the extent of global inequality has:
a. Decreased sharply
b. Stayed about the same
c. Increased
d. Become smaller, but not by much

50. Which of the following is NOT a key feature of modern slavery?
a. Race matters like it did in the past
b. It is justified through profitability
c. There is control but not ownership
d. Poverty increases vulnerability
e. All of the above are key features

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