Application of Nursing Theory: Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model(HPM)

Application of Nursing Theory: Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model(HPM) Sample paper

Application of Nursing Theory: Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model(HPM)

The assignment:

Discussion. Nursing theory, Nola Penders Health Promotion Model, will be presented as a framework to resolve a problem occurring within the professional area of healthcare policy.
This specific nursing theory must be used. No non-nursing theories are permitted. A category of nursing theory (grand, middle range,Application of Nursing Theory practice) may not be used—only a specific, published nursing theory is to be selected and applied to the issue or concern important to the profession of nursing as documented in the nursing literature.
Please note: Do not rely on .com sites to identify the nursing theory as they do not provide accurate information in all cases.

The nursing theory I have chosen to research throughout this course is Nola Pender’s Health Promotion model. I need to find an issue regarding healthcare policy (local, state, or national) to which Pender’s theory can be applied.

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The solution: Sample answer for Application of Nursing Theory: Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model(HPM)

The main purpose of healthcare is to promote the well-being of the general population through interventions that enhance both mental and physical health. One of the strategies used to enhance public health is health promotion which refers to the development of systemic, community, individual, institutional, and group interventions that focus on improving health attitudes, knowledge, and behavior. Nurses provide direct care to patients hence they are more aware of individual factors that lead to poor health. As a result, they play a significant role in the development and implementation of health promotion interventions. The main action areas that nurses can be involved in include advocacy, helping policymakers develop healthcare policies that advance public health, participating in community activities, and supporting the development of supportive environments that promote good health (Iriarte‐Roteta et al., 2020). Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model (HPM) is a nursing theory that provides a tool for healthcare professionals, especially nurses, to engage in preventive actions that improve health and well-being. The theory posits that cognitive-perceptual factors, including perceived self-efficacy, barriers, and benefits impact an individual’s ability to engage in behaviors that promote good health (Khodaveisi et al., 2017). The purpose of this theory is to present the HPM as a framework for reducing the prevalence of chronic illnesses and consequently reducing costs incurred in treating these illnesses.

Application of Nursing Theory: Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model(HPM) Sample paper

Overview of the Health Promotion Model

Nola Pender developed the health promotion model (HPM) in 1982 with the belief that nurses should provide care that helps people achieve optimal health. The health promotion model (HPM) is based on the idea that people are biopsychosocial in that their environment shapes them. However, people also seek to develop environments that enable them to express their full potential (Aqtam & Darawwad, 2018).

Concepts of the health promotion model (HPM)

The HPM defines health as both the state of well-being and being free from disease. Health promotion is defined as a wellness approach that includes behaviors exhibited by people based on the desire to enhance well-being. The main concepts addressed in the HPM include unique experiences and characteristics possessed by people, behavior-specific effects and cognition, and how these cognitions impact behavioral outcomes. Individual characteristics include personal factors including psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors. Psychological factors include self-motivation, self-esteem, and perceptions regarding health status. Biological factors include intrinsic factors such as aerobic capacity, weight, gender, and strength, while socio-cultural factors include ethnicity, race, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and education. Behavior-specific cognitions include the perceptions that people hold about their self-efficacy, barriers, and benefits of health-related actions that impact their well-being. Other factors such as situational influences, interpersonal circumstances, and competing demands influence an individual’s commitment to health behaviors (Khoshnood et al., 2018).

Assumptions and Propositions of the health promotion model (HPM)

The HPM assumes that people can regulate their behavior hence they actively seek to do so. People also interact with their environment and in the process are transformed by it and also work on transforming it to meet their needs. Healthcare professionals are significant components of the interpersonal environment within which people exist. Behavior change is only possible if people focus on reconfiguring how they interact with their environments (Khoshnood et al., 2018).

Generally, the health promotion model (HPM) propositions that personal characteristics, including both, acquired and inherited characteristics, impact healthcare beliefs and the ability to engage in behaviors that promote good health. People are more likely to commit to behaviors which they feel they will benefit from although perceived barriers may prevent commitment. The perceptions that people hold about their self-efficacy or competence also influence their commitment. Other factors that impact commitment to health behaviors include positive emotions, positive affect, presence of positive role models including healthcare professionals, family members, and peers, positive situational influences, and absence of competing demands. It is possible to modify physical, interpersonal, and cognitive environments to promote commitment to healthy behaviors (Khoshnood et al., 2018).

Application of Nursing Theory: Nola Pender’s Health Promotion Model(HPM) Sample paper

Healthcare Policy Issue

One of the major healthcare policy issues at both state and federal levels is the high cost of care. One of the reasons why the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was implemented was to reduce healthcare costs by facilitating the transition to a value-based care system. In addition, the ACA focused on improving the affordability of healthcare by increasing the number of insured people in the country and containing insurance premium costs for people with preexisting conditions. Despite these interventions, healthcare costs continue to rise (Shrank et al., 2021). The high cost of healthcare is attributed to various factors including a high incidence of chronic illnesses such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, obesity, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s’ disease (CDC, 2021). As per Holman (2020) approximately 50 percent of people living in the U.S. suffer from at least one chronic illness. Since the 1950s, the incidence of chronic illnesses has increased dramatically such that in the past 20 years, prevalence rates have increased by approximately 8 million people every five years. Care provided to patients with chronic illnesses consumes 90 percent of the total costs which translates to approximately 43.8 trillion annually. These costs are expected to rise with the increase in the elderly population who are more likely to suffer from multiple illnesses.

One of the strategies that can be used to reduce healthcare costs is to implement policies that reduce the volume of healthcare services demanded by the general public.  Health promotion is an example of a strategy that can help control healthcare expenditure by reducing the incidence of these illnesses and facilitating effective management (Stadhouders et al., 2019).

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Application of the Health Promotion Model (HPM)

Most chronic illnesses such as obesity and diabetes can be prevented or effectively managed through behavioral interventions. These interventions must target modifiable risk factors especially those associated with an individual’s lifestyle such as smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption. The health promotion model (HPM) can be used as a framework to develop health education interventions at individual and community levels.  These interventions should entail assessing factors that limit commitment to healthy behavior development of strategies that encourage people to take action to improve their health status and general wellbeing (Gorbani et al., 2020). Nurses, especially community health and primary care nurses, are the only healthcare professionals who are embedded within individuals and communities and can help promote disease prevention by empowering patients and members of the community to make healthcare choices (Griffin, 2017).

Health promotion interventions designed to reduce the prevalence of chronic illnesses should focus on specific domains defined by the HPM including physical activity, nutrition, interpersonal relations, stress management, and spiritual growth. These domains should be implemented as part of patient education interventions provided to communities and patients in the country. The main focus of patient education should include creating awareness on chronic illnesses including the nature of these illnesses, non-modifiable risk factors such as age and genetics, and modifiable risk factors such as lifestyle. Patient education should also include emphasizing individual responsibility in health promotion, the importance of engaging in physical activity, consuming healthy food, effective stress management, and maintaining positive relationships (Hwang & Kim, 2020).

Nurses should also focus on patient-centered education sessions that will be developed based on personal experiences and situational influences. It is important to assess patient perspectives regarding their ability to engage in healthy behaviors, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, and interpersonal influences that may either support or prevent them from healthy lifestyles. Nurses can also focus on influencing patients to be more committed to healthy behaviors by describing the benefits of healthy lifestyles including reduced risk of chronic illnesses, disability, and improved quality of life. In addition, nurses can help patients overcome barriers such as low socioeconomic status by referring them to community resources that will improve their financial wellbeing. Health promotion interventions should also include patient education targeting patients with chronic illnesses. Nurses should always provide education sessions that focus on effective disease management through lifestyle modification and adherence to the medication regimen. Such interventions reduce complications, emergency service use, and the risk of re-hospitalization among chronically-ill patients thus reducing costs incurred in treatment (Yousefi et al., 2019).

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Chronic illnesses have become more prevalent and account for 90 percent of healthcare costs. Therefore, strategies to reduce these costs should focus on the prevention and effective management of these illnesses. The health promotion model (HPM) provides a clear framework for patient education interventions that target individuals and communities by empowering patients to engage in healthy lifestyles.

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Aqtam, I., & Darawwad, M. (2018). Health Promotion Model: An Integrative Literature Review. Open Journal of Nursing08(07), 485-503.

CDC. (2021). Health and Economic Costs of Chronic Diseases.

Griffin, C. D. (2017). A Primary Care Nursing Perspective on Chronic Disease Prevention and Management. Delaware journal of public health, 3(1), 78–83.

Holman H. R. (2020). The Relation of the Chronic Disease Epidemic to the Health Care Crisis. ACR open rheumatology, 2(3), 167–173.

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