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pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections

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pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections

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Post a description of the pathophysiology of lower and upper urinary tract infections, including their similarities and differences. Select two of the following factors: age, genetics, behavior, gender, and ethnicity. Then explain how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology of the infections, as well as the diagnosis of and treatment for the infections.

– This work should have Introduction and conclusion

– This work should have at 4 to 5 current references (Year 2013 and up)

– Use at least 2 references from class Learning Resources

The following Resources are not acceptable:

1. Wikipedia

2. nonhealthcare professionals section




**Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

  • Chapter      29, “Structure and Function of the Renal and Urologic Systems”

This chapter introduces the structure and function of the renal and urologic systems. It covers renal blood flow, kidney function, and tests for renal and bladder function.

  • Chapter      30, “Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function”

This chapter examines alterations of the renal and urinary tract function, including urinary tract obstruction, urinary tract infection, acute kidney injury, and chronic kidney disease. It focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, and evaluation and treatment of those renal and urinary tract alterations.

  • Chapter      31, “Alterations of Renal and Urinary Tract Function in Children”

This chapter presents alterations of renal and urinary tract function that are common in children. These alterations include structural abnormalities, bladder disorders, nephroblastoma, and urinary incontinence.

**Hammer, G. G. , & McPhee, S. (2014). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine. (7th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

  • Chapter      16, “Renal Disease”

This chapter explores the structure and function of the kidney for preparation of examining renal diseases. It then examines renal diseases such as acute kidney injury and chronic renal failure.

**National Kidney Foundation. (2012). Retrieved from

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