Microbiology Initial Discussion and Responses

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Microbiology Initial Discussion and Responses essay assignment


Write a thoughtful 2-3 paragraph posting on your chosen question. (NOTE: a paragraph should have 4-5 sentences!) You will need to reference your sources including your textbook at the end of your posting to avoid plagiarism. Be specific in your reference! For instance, do not put just www.cdc.gov – give me the exact page that you used within the CDC’s website. And if you do use your textbook as a reference, make sure that you have a 2nd reference as well from another source.

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For 6 TOPICS: create an original discussion for that topic, 2 paragraphs each

For 13 Respond To: Respond to the discussion that is already created, 2 paragraphs each

Topic 1: Turning ALL Blood into the “Universal Donor” What do you think of this new major development? Ch.13

Topic 2: Compare and Contrast H7N9 (Avian Flu) to H1N1 influenza Ch.9

Topic 3: Interferons as Therapies Ch. 11

Topic 4: National Vaccination Injury Compensation Program: How would you explain the benefits of immunization in light of potential side effects to someone who is skeptical of vaccines in general? Ch.14

Topic 5: A Universal Flu Vaccine Could One Day Replace Annual Flu. Ch.16

Topic 6: MMR Vaccine Timing: Based on this information about the formulation of these two vaccines, why are they not administered until the child is a year old? Ch.17

Respond to #1: Turning ALL Blood into the “Universal Donor” What do you think of this new major development? Ch.13

According to the Red Cross every two seconds someone in the US needs a blood transfusions and in an emergency situation there may not be enough time to get a patients blood type. To ensure that patients safety the universal donor type O Negative will be given. O negative is the most sought out blood for donors. For this reason. The company ZymeQuest have worked to isolate, purify and concentrate enzymes that can clip the end portion of type A and B to make them look like the O antigen. They are currently conducting clinical trials of its conversion system that can modify the blood. A concern is that the system does not remove the Rh factor so it would not be generating a true universl donor blood type. I do not agree with this method. You would not want to risk giving the wrong blood to the wrong patient and the adverse effect resulting in the patients death. However, if they can figure out how to remove the Rh factor this could lead to a huge milestone in Medicine.

Microbiology: Basic and Clinical Principles. Microbiology: Basic and Clinical Principles, by Lourdes Norman-McKay. Pearson, 2019. pp. 393

Respond to #2: Shining Light on Jaundice Ch.13

According to research , Jaundice is develops in up to 50% normal term babies and 80% preterm babies. Jaundice occurs when a waste product in the blood called bilurubin is increased in the blood system .This occurs when the liver is not able to fully remove them. During pregnancy, the mothers liver acts as the detoxifier for the baby too. After birth , the baby liver is supposed to take on this duty. Some baby’s liver are not fully developed after birth which results in a decrease in its function. Thus bilirubin is not excreted efficiently from the body and this will result in Jaundice. Jaundice is characterized by a yellowing of the skin and eyes of the new baby. The total serum bilirubin test (TSB) can be performed to diagnose Jaundice. Blood incompatibility occurs when the mother is a type O and the baby is a type A , type A or type AB. If there is a mix in blood between the mother either during pregnancy or child birth process will result in the creation of antibodies from the mothers blood which will attack the baby’s red blood cells and causing hemolysis with bilirubin a by product. This will result in jaundice of the baby.

Raymond kene


Mckay, Lourdes Norman. Chapter 13. Microbiology Basic and Clinical Principles, pp. 392-394.


WWW.CDC.GOV. 9 Apr. 2018, www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/jaundice/facts.html. Accessed 6 Mar. 2019.

Respond to #3: Comprehensive Case Ch.8

Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, can be very dangerous if gone untreated. In this case, the patient is Type 1 Diabetic, and therefore his body cannot make or does not make enough insulin. The patient had lost his job and therefore had not been taking his insulin as he had run out, which led him to have a very high blood sugar. If hyperglycemia is failed to be treated then ketoacidosis, or a diabetic coma, can occur. Without insulin, your body breaks down fats for energy since you cannot use glucose. This leads to the production of ketones, and the body cannot handle large amounts, but the body cannot release these ketones fast enough and leads to ketoacidosis. Therefore, this patient did not have his insulin he needed which leaded to him having a high blood sugar. This high blood sugar was left untreated long enough that the body began to use broken down fat for energy, which occurs in ketoacidosis, and leads to the fact that hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis can both occur at the same time.

The patient was going through ketoacidosis, the breakdown of nutrients when there is not enough insulin leading to not enough insulin getting into the patient’s cell. The nutrients broken down are fats as they are very reduced and can provide a lot more ATP than that of proteins when it comes to being broken down for energy.

Macayla Hearrell


American Diabetes Association: Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose): http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hyperglycemia.html

Respond to #4: Question 1: Statins Ch.8

Statins are a group of drugs commonly prescribed to lower an individual’s cholesterol. The goal of lowering an individual’s cholesterol is to simultaneously lower the individual’s risk for a stroke or heart attack. If a patient has borderline high cholesterol, they are often placed on a statin if they have a strong family history of cardiac or vascular disease.

Some common statins prescribed are as follows: atorvastatin (Lipitor), simvastatin (Zocor), and rosuvastatin (Crestor). These drugs work by inhibiting the production of HMG-CoA reductase, which is a liver enzyme vital in the production of cholesterol. Statins “mirror” the enzyme HMG-coA reductase, and they compete for and obtain a spot at the native substrate’s active site. When the HMC-coA reductase enzyme is blocked, it is not able to effectively create mevalonate, which is the next molecule in the chain of cholesterol production.

Cholesterol is mostly produced at night, and statins are taken at bedtime due to their short half-life. Most cholesterol is produced by the liver rather than by dietary choices, so the levels of cholesterol in the body usually lower well when a patient is placed on a statin. Most patients are started on one statin drug but may eventually be prescribed two. More men than women are prescribed statins in the United States.

Kelly Hughes


“Microbiology: Basic and Clinical Principles.” Microbiology: Basic and Clinical Principles, by Lourdes Norman-McKay, Pearson, 2019, p. 238, figure 8.10.

Reimold, Sharon, et al. “10 Truths about Statins and High Cholesterol | Heart | UT Southwestern Medical Center.” UTSouthwestern Medical Center, 2 Feb. 2016, utswmed.org/medblog/statins-answers/.

Respond to #5: Emerging Disease Hot Spots: Compare and contrast Ebola Virus and MERS Ch.9

The Ebola Virus is a rare and deadly disease mostly affecting monkeys, gorillas and chimpanzees. It is caused by an infection with a group of viruses in the genus Ebolavirus, It is believed that the virus is from animals, bats being the primary source. It spreads to people with direct contact with bodily fluids of a person who is sick with or has died from Ebola Virus. The virus gets through broken skin or mucous membranes (eyes, mouth, or nose). You can also get it from sexual contact with a person infected. Symptoms include fever, severe headache, muscle pain, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, unexplained bruising and fatigue. Symptoms appear from 2-32 days after contact with the virus. These symptoms are the same symptoms as other illnesses such as influenza and malaria. The treatment of Ebola includes, providing fluids and electrolytes through iv, oxygen, medication to stabilize blood pressure, reduce vomiting, and to manage pain.


MERS ((Middle Eastern Respiratory syndrome) is a virus called coronavirus. It is unknown the cause of cornoavirus. It was first reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Since then has caused illness in several other countries. All cases have been linked to countries in and near the Arabian Peninsula. Most people infected with MERS have had severe acute respiratory illnesses with symptoms including fever, cough and shortness of breath. People also complained of diarrhea and nausea/vomiting. Many people ended up having complications such as pneumonia and kidney failure. The research available has shown that people with pre-existing conditions may be more likely to become infected with MERS. Some of the pre-existing conditions are Diabetes, Cancer, Chronic Lung and Chronic Kidney disease. The usual time after exposure a person will exhibit symptoms is 2-5 days. However, can take as long as 14 days. There is no specific treatment for MERS. The symptoms are usually treated to help relieve them and the severe cases include support of vital organs.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.a). CDC Ebola Virus. Retrieved 15 February 2019.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.a). CDC Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndromee (MERS). Retrieved 15 February 2019.


Respond to #6: Critical thinking Question #4 Ch.11

Why is applying ice the recommended therapy for acute inflammation? To answer this question, you must first know why inflammation occurs. Per our textbook inflammation is a protective response initiated by tissue injury. Inflammation occurs in three general phases: vascular changes, leukocyte recruitment, and resolution (Norman-Mckay p 346). It is in the first phase that ice would benefit the most. During vascular changes vasodilation occurs. This stimulates blood to enter the affected area. Fluids then exit leaky blood vessels to enter the tissues. Ice causes vasoconstriction which is turn reduces the amount of blood flow and exudate from entering the tissues.

It is important for ice to be applied as soon as possible after any injury. Ice can help make your injury feel better, so many experts recommend using ice for only a short period of time. It may be best to keep the ice on for at least five minutes, and then off for 30 minutes to restore normal blood flow (Inverarity). It is in question whether ice helps or hurts the inflammation process, but it is shown that ice helps to relieve some of the pain of inflammation.

Norman-McKay, L., (2019) Microbiology: Basic and Clinical Principles. [Pearson] Retrieved from:


Inverarity, Laura. “Use the R.I.C.E. Method Correctly for Injuries.” Verywell Health,


Respond to #7: NSAIDS vs SAIDS Ch.11

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or more commonly known as “NSAIDS”, are the most common pain relief medications around the world. We commonly take these medications to soothe headaches, sprains, and other daily symptoms. NSAID drugs can also help bring down low grade fevers, as well as some swelling. NSAIDS work on a chemical level and specifically target special enzymes known as Cox-1 enzymes and Cox-2 enzymes. These enzymes help with the production ofprostaglandins. By blocking these enzymes, NSAIDS stop the production of prostaglandins throughout your body, which means less pain and swelling.

SAIDS are steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. SAIDS are used to suppress inflammation and assist in the breakdown of fats, carbs, and proteins. These certain drugs can help treat colitis, asthma, bronchitis, allergic reactions, and skin rashes. Unfortunately, prolonged use of SAIDS can lead to other life-long issues such as obesity, depression, mood swings, personality changes, and more.


“Corticosteroids vs. NSAIDs: Types, Side Effects & Interactions.” MedicineNet,www.medicinenet.com/corticosteroids_vs_nsaids/article.htm#corticosteroids_vs_nsaids_facts.

Griffin, R. Morgan. “NSAIDs for Pain Relief.” WebMD, WebMD, www.webmd.com/arthritis/features/pain-relief-how-nsaids-work#1.

Respond to #8: Point-of-Care Tests for Quick Diagnosis Ch.14

Point-of-Care Tests for Quick Diagnosis

If you have been to a doctor’s office for a sore throat, possible pregnancy or blood sugar concerns, chances are you had a point-of-care test, or POCT, done. It is very common for doctors’ offices to have these rapid tests available in office for quick diagnosis. Other POCTs available are rapid flu and UTI. This makes sense to have these available because it is quicker than sending out to a lab as well as cheaper for the patient. Lab results can take days and at that point the patient can be suffering for far too long.

These tests are not 100% accurate. “Like any other medical test, POCTs are subject to potential sources of error that may include improper sample collection or processing, sample or reagent contamination, faulty equipment (especially incorrect calibration), and expired or improperly stored reagents” (Norman-McKay, p 420). The benefits seem to outweigh the potential equipment errors overall. In my office if a test comes back negative, such as the rapid strep, we send out for a throat culture to the lab as a backup just to make sure the patient did not get a false negative with the POCT.

Norman-McKay, Lourdes. Microbiology: Basic and Clinical Principles. Pearson, 2019.

Respond to #9: National Vaccination Injury Compensation Program Ch.14

How would you explain the benefits of immunization in light of potential side effects to someone who is skeptical of vaccines in general?

In my opinion, factual and scientifically backed studies are how I would convert a skeptic to the cause of vaccination. This could be data which supports the eradication of the disease intended, or data to prove there are no adverse side effects to the vaccine. Furthermore, one could share how studies that promote adverse side effects such as autism are invalid, have an incredibly low N-value, and have lost contributors their medical license (Norman-Mckay, 2019, p. 408)

In fact, a 2015 study of 95,000 children found no link between the MMR vaccine and autism. The CDC also states that vaccinations have prevented 21 million hospitalizations between 1994-2013 in the US alone, and 732,000 deaths. However rare, adverse reactions do occur. One such instance was two deaths from the yellow fever vaccination in Brazil by hemorrhagic fever (Vasconcelos, 2001, p. 91). This finding was also published by the Lancet.


Norman-McKay, L., (2019) Microbiology: Basic and Clinical Principles. [Pearson] Retrieved from: https://etext.pearson.com

Vasconcelos, P. F., Luna, E. J., (2001). Serious adverse events associated with yellow fever 17DD vaccine in Brazil: a report of two cases. The Lancet358(9276), 91-97.

Respond to #10: How to fight the flu. Ch.16

Influenza also known as flu is a viral infection of the respiratory system. There are 3 types of influenza viruses. These are types A, B, C and D. Influenza A virus infects humans, animals and birds, influenza B and C viruses mainly infect humans, while influenza type D infects cattle. Influenza A viruses are found in ducks, chickens, pigs, horses, whales and seals.

Tamiflu and Relenza are the 2 antiviral drugs that have been approve for treatment of flu in the USA. These two drugs have parameters as to when they can taken. They are most effective when taken with known exposure to virus .Rapid immuno assays are used to detect either influenza A or B. Unlike these medications, flu vaccine does not require exposure before treatment and remains effective throughout the flu season. According to CDC flu vaccines prevented estimated 5.3 million influenza illnesses in 2016-2017.The vaccine is therefore a proactive way of preventing infection.


McKay, Lourdes Norman. Chapter 16. Microbiology Basic and Clinical Principles, pp. 474-475.

Center for Disease Prevention and Control. (2018, October 12). Retrieved from WWW.CDC.gov: www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/vaccineeffect.htm

Respond to #11: A Universal Flu Vaccine Could One Day Replace Annual Flu Ch.16

A Universal Flu Vaccine Could One Day Replace Annual Flu

Wouldn’t it be nice to not have to get the flu vaccine annually? Currently there are multiple different approaches to find a universal vaccine. According to our textbook, “Most universal vaccine development efforts involve strategies to train the immune system to make antibodies that target conserved regions of influenza (so-called broadly neutralizing antibodies” (Norman-McKay, p.478). In 2018 a strategic plan was introduced by NIAID. According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease “Seasonal flu vaccines fight infection by inducing antibodies that target the HA head. This region varies season to season, which is why flu vaccines must be updated each year. However, scientists discovered the stem typically remains unchanged, making it an ideal target for antibodies induced by a universal flu vaccine” (NIAID). These are just two experiments being looked at. Others involve exposing patients to multiple strains to build a broad protection response.

No matter how a vaccine is found it would make such a positive impact in our country. Working in healthcare it seems over the last few years the yearly vaccine is less and less effective. This season alone our office has seen more sick coworkers testing positive as well as patients than any other year I have worked there. Also, the fact that these approaches they are using to find this vaccine has potential to lead to other vaccines for other diseases is incredible. I truly hope this is something I get to witness in my lifetime.

Norman-McKay, Lourdes. Microbiology: Basic and Clinical Principles. Pearson, 2019.


Respond to #12: MMR Vaccine Timing: Based on this information about the formulation of these two vaccines, why are they not administered until the child is a year old? Ch.17

MMR Vaccine is not given until a child is two years of age because the vaccine may cause serious potential side effects harmful to the child’s health. That is because the vaccine is a live attenuated virus that should not be given to children until their immune system has properly developed (Norman-Mckay, 2019, p. 513). This is intentionally done so, so that not only will the child sicken, but the proper immunologic response will be developed to combat the viral pathogens at a later age. This is partially due to the microbiota of a human not materializing until later age, therefore the adaptive immunity will not have developed entirely.

Adaptive immunity may also not have a role in fighting off other invaders when the patient is battling the immunocompromised toddler given the vaccination. However, false skepticism has allowed an outbreak of measles due to publishing’s by The Lancet (Eggertson, 2010, p. e199)This n-value of only 12 study is believed to have contributed to an outbreak at Disney Park’s in 2012, and now a much larger one throughout Europe and North America. Since measles requires a 95% vaccination rate for herd immunity, then these publishing are very harmful and even fatal, causing those behind them to lose their medicine licensure.


Norman-McKay, L., (2019) Microbiology: Basic and Clinical Principles. [Pearson] Retrieved from: https://etext.pearson.com p. 513

Eggertson, L. (2010). Lancet retracts 12-year-old article linking autism to MMR vaccines. Canadian Medical Association. Journal182(4), E199.

<strong “=””>Respond to #13: An array of Topical Anti-fungals

Yeast infection also know as cutaneous Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by the yeast pathogen Candida albicans. Candida yeast normally reside in the intestinal tract and the mucous membrane. Even though they are in the body , their signs if infections are mild. Signs of infections become more visible when there is an overgrowth of the fungus in a particular area. An exam is the vaginal yeast infection also known as Candidiasis in the vagina. Signs include vaginal itching or soreness, abnormal vaginal discharge and pain when urinating or while having intercourse.

Fungal infections are treated with anti fungals including Miconazole which is often used to treat vaginal yeast infection. Longer treatment courses are suggested for anti fungal treatment because the fungus and the human cell have similarities. The fungi have also developed resistance mechanism such as over expression of efflux pump proteins. Efflux pump qualities help them pump out medication making them more resistant to medication. Longer exposure to the medication help weaken their zone and resistant properties.


Mckay, Lourdes Norman. Chapter 17.Microbiology Basic and Clinical Principles, pp.523-524

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